SODIUM REDUCTION IN THE BAKERY INDUSTRY

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Nowadays, the dietary sodium chloride intake is higher than the daily recommended levels, especially due to its prominent presence in food products. This may cause an increase of high blood pressure leading to cardiovascular diseases. Cereal products, and in particular bread, are the main source of salt in human diet. However, salt is a critical ingredient in bread making, and its reduction can have a negative impact on bread quality. 

Function of Sodium Chloride in bread:

In general, the functions of salt in bread are summarized as:

• Sensory effect by imparting flavor 

• Control of yeast growth and fermentation rate 

• Improvement of product texture 

• Reduction of spoilage, particularly mould spoilage.

The main technological effects of salt on the process of bread baking are summarized as:

• The development of gluten-structures in the mixing of
  dough is promoted. 

• Yeast activity is inhibited during the fermentation step,
  which results in a lower gas release. 

• Water activity is controlled in the baked products. 

• Formation of a fine elastic crumb during baking

Salt reduction and Influence on Mixing/ Empirical Rheology:

Material parameters such as stiffness, modulus, viscosity, hardness, strength, or toughness as measured by the method of Rheology. 

• Industrialized production of low-salt bread requires precise description of the rheological changes in dough to secure machinability and proper handling

• 0% and 1.2% doughs show significantly different results so doughs containing 1,2 – 2% NaCl are quite stable

Salt reduction and Influence on Fermentation:

The fermentation process is subdivided into two sections: a phase before moulding, called “intermediate proofing” and one after moulding, called “final proofing”.

• First observed a significant increase in the maximum dough height as the salt level decreases will show up

• The gluten network is weaker due to the reduced level of salt so the dough cannot hold the volume of gas

Salt reduction and Influence on the Baking Process:

The structure of the outer dough layer is essential for an optimal browning. Hence, the reduction of salt influences crust texture due to its impact on the formation of the gluten network and crust flavor and crust color due to the impact of on yeast activity. 

• With respect to the crumb bread without salt results in a smaller amount of larger gas cells when compared to salt containing bread.

Salt reduction and Influence on Mixing/ Empirical Rheology:

Material parameters such as stiffness, modulus, viscosity, hardness, strength, or toughness as measured by the method of Rheology. 

• Industrialized production of low-salt bread requires precise description of the rheological changes in dough to secure machinability and proper handling

• 0% and 1.2% doughs show significantly different results so doughs containing 1,2 – 2% NaCl are quite stable

Salt reduction and Influence on Fermentation:

The fermentation process is subdivided into two sections: a phase before moulding, called “intermediate proofing” and one after moulding, called “final proofing”.

• First observed a significant increase in the maximum dough height as the salt level decreases will show up

• The gluten network is weaker due to the reduced level of salt so the dough cannot hold the volume of gas

Sodium chloride reduction and Influence on the Baking Process:

The structure of the outer dough layer is essential for an optimal browning. Hence, the reduction of salt influences crust texture due to its impact on the formation of the gluten network and crust flavor and crust color due to the impact of on yeast activity. 

• With respect to the crumb bread without sodium chloride results in a smaller amount of larger gas cells when compared to salt containing bread.

Sodium chloride reduction and Influence on the final Bread:

The omission of salt did, however, was reported to result in significant changes regarding crumb structure and level of staling after 5 days of storage. Regarding the flavor, crust formation, and the shelf-life of lowsalt breads, significant changes were determined.

Summary Part I:

A level of +/- 2% Sodium Chloride is quite the optimum for the bakery process. Customers will keep that first step but would need urgently solutions for further steps!

REFORMULATION APPROACH FOR SODIUM REDUCTION IN THE BAKERY INDUSTRY:

• Potassium Chloride: The replacement of salt with potassium chloride does not result in any significant production disadvantages but has an adverse impact on the flavor of bread once the substitution level rises above 10% of sodium chloride! 

•  Mineral Salts (K/Mg/Ca): breads prepared with this solution were found to be comparable to regular bread with respect to flavor and texture. No negative effect has been reported even at lower salt levels.

•  Replacement of sodium containing ingredients (e. g. Sodiumbicarbonate, Sodiumcarbonate or Sodiumacetate) with the corresponding potassium minerals (e. g. Potassiumbicarbonate, Potassiumcarbonate or Potassiumacetate)

OUR SOLUTIONS:

We as SALT Minerals are experts in regards of sodium replacement and we have developed different options to reduce the sodium content:

Tabelle mit den Alternativen….Minsal, KCarb, KBiCarb, KAce, Saltosil K, tailor made premix, one grain product basierend auf Sylvenit sodiumsodium chloride

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